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Activities and occupations

This is a short list of not more or less known activities and occupations of the colonists

ACATER: supplied food provisions, such as a ships chandler

ACCIPITRARY a falconer or keeper and tamer of hawks

ACCOMPANT: an accountant

ACCOUCHEUR / ACCOUCHEUS: one who assisted women in childbirth

ACCOUTREMENT MAKER / ACCOUTRE: a supplier of military accessories

ACRE-MAN / ACKERMAN: a man who ploughed or cultivated the land

ACTUARY: a statistician who computed insurance risks and premiums

AGENT: a person who acted on behalf of a company or another person

AGRICULTURIST: a person involved with land cultivation or animal husbandry

ALABASTERER: one who worked with alabaster

ALCHEMIST: a medieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn base metals into gold

ALE DRAPER: [obsolete] an ale-house keeper

ALE TASTER: an English officer appointed in every court leet, and sworn to inspect ale beer, and bread, and examine the quality and quantity within his precints

ALE TUNNER: a person employed by the brewery to fill ale casks called "tuns" with ale

ALEWIFE a woman who kept an alehouse or tavern

ALL SPICE: grocer

ALMONER: an officer who distributed charity or alms; by ancient law every monastery was to disperse a tenth of its income in alms to the poor, and all bishops were obliged to keep an almoner

ALMSMAN: a person supported by charity or one who lived on alms

ALNAGER: official who examined the quality of woolen goods and stamped them with the town seal of approval

AMANUENSIS: one who is employed to take dictation or to copy manuscript

AMBER CUTTER: a person who cut ambergris

ANCHOR SMITH: one who made anchors

ANCHORESS: a female hermit or religious recluse

ANCHORITE: a person who has retired into seclusion for religious reasons

ANKLE BEATER: a young person who helped to drive the cattle to market

ANNATTO MAKER: a person who worked in the manufacture of dyes for paint or printing

ANTIGROPELOS MAKER: a person who made waterproof leggings

ANVIL SMITH: a person who made anvils and hammers for blacksmiths

APIARIANA: beekeeper

APOTHECARY: a druggist

APPRENTICE: one who was bound to a skilled worker for a specified time to learn a trade

APRONMAN: [obsolete] a laboring man; a mechanic

AQUAVITA SELLER: liquor seller

ARBITER: a witness or judge

ARCHER: a person skilled in using a bow and arrow

ARCHIATOR: a physician

ARCHIVIST: one who kept historical records

ARGOLET: a mounted bowman

ARKWRIGHT: a skilled craftsman who produced "arks" (wooden chests or coffers)

ARMIGER: one entitled to bear arms, such as knight or esquire

ARMOURER: one who made suits of armour or plates of armour for buildings or ships

ARPENTEUR: a land-surveyor

ARTIFICER: a blacksmith; one who made fuses, grenades, shells, etc.

ARTISAN: a skilled tradesman

ASHMAN: a dustman

ASSAY MASTER: a person who determined the amount of gold or silver to go in coins

ASSAYER: one who examined characteristics (weight, measure or quality) to determine a value

AUGER MAKER: one who made the carpenters augers for boring holes in wood

AULNAGER: See Alnager

AURIFABER / AURIFEX: a goldsmith

AVENATOR: a hay and forage merchant

AVOWRY: term for the lord of the manor

AXLE TREE MAKER / AXLE TREE TURNER: one who made axles for coaches and waggons

BACKMAKER: a person who made "backs", vats, tubs, a Cooper

BACKSTER: [obsolete] originally, a female baker; later, a baker of either sex

BACK'US BOY: kitchen servant

BADGER: a licensed pauper who wore a badge with the letter "P" on it and could only work in a defined area; a corn miller or dealer; an itinerant food trader

BADGY FIDDLER: a boy trumpeter in the military

BAGMAN: a travelling salesman; one who showed samples and solicits order for a manufacturer

BAGNIOKEEPER: a person in charge of a bath house or brothel

BAILIFF: [1] a court attendant entrusted with duties such as the maintenance of order in a courtroom during a trial; [2] an official who assisted a British sheriff and who had the power to execute writs, processes, and arrests; [3] (chiefly British) an overseer of an estate; a steward

BALISTER: [obsolete] a cross-bowman

BAIRMAN / BAREMAN: pauper, beggar

BALANCER: a person employed in the coal mines to operate the "balance" which is a slope with a pulley at the top where empty coal tubs pulled full tubs up the slope

BALER: one who bales of hay

BALLAD MONGER: one who sold printed ballads on the street

BALLAST HEAVER: a person who loaded ballast into the hold of empty ships

BALLER UP: a person who assisted the potter by measuring out the balls of clay

BAND FILER: a metal worker in the gun making industry

BANDSTER: [obsolete] one who bound sheaves after reapers during a harvest

BANG BEGGAR: [slang] a constable who carried a strong staff

BANKER: a person who dug trenches and ditches to allow drainage of the land, placing the surplus earth in banks around the edge

BANKS MAN: [1] an overseer at a coal mine; [2] a bank manager

BANQUETER: a broker or banker

BARBER-CHIRURGEON - a person who practiced surgery and was a barber; in the 18th century an Act was passed that limited Barbers to hair-cutting, shaving, dentistry and blood letting

BARD: a poet or minstral

BARGEMAN: one who worked on or owned and operated a barge

BARKEEPER: a tollkeeper

BARKER: [obsolete] a tanner

BARKMAN: a bargeman

BARM BREWER: a person who made yeast

BARREL FILER: a person employed in the gun manufacturing industry

BARTONER / BARTON: a person in charge of the monastic farm, also known as a barton

BASIL WORKER: a person who worked with sheep and goat skins

BASKETMAN: person who made baskets and furniture from wicker; one employed to empty the basket of coal being offloaded from the colliers into the barges

BATHING MACHINE PROPRIETOR: one who owned and hired the changing huts used at the seaside in the 18th and 19th centuries by bathers

BATMAN: an officer's servant in the army

BATTLEDORE MAKER: a person who made the beaters used on clothes, carpets, etc. to remove the dust

BAWD: a procurer or procuress for a house of prostitution

BAXTER: [obsolete] a baker

BAYWEAVER: one who wove bay, a fine woollen fabric also known as baize

BEADLE: a town crier or warrant officer; a lowly parish officer appointed to keep order in church, punish petty offenders, and act as a servant or messenger of the parish

BEAMSTER: the man who worked at the beam in a tannery

BEAVER: one who made felt used in hat making

BEDMAN: a sexton

BEDDER: [1] an upholsterer; [2] one who took care of the breeding or birthing of cattle; [3] a bed-maker

BEDWEAVER: a person who made the webbing for bed frames, also a person who wove quilts

BEESKEPMAKER: beehive maker

BEEKEEPER / BEEMASTER: a person who raised and kept bees for their honey

BELL FOUNDER: one who made bells

BELL HANGER: the person who installed bells in churches

BELLMAN: a town crier employed to make public announcements in the streets

BELL RINGER: one in charge of ringing the town's church bells

BELLOWFARMER: person responsible for the care and maintenance of the church organ

BELLOWS MAKER: a person who made bellows used for organs or blacksmiths' fires

BELLY BUILDER: a person who built and fitted the interiors of pianos

BENDER: a person who cut leather

BERNER: [obsolete] a man in charge of a pack of hounds

BESOM MAKER: [obsolete] one who made brooms

BIBLIOTHECARY: a librarian

BIDDY: female servant usually of Irish stock

BID-STAND: [obsolete] one who bade travelers to "stand and deliver"; a highwayman or robber

BILL POSTER: a person who put up notices, signs and advertisements

BINDER: one who bound items such as books

BIRD BOY: a person employed to scare away birds from crops

BIRD CATCHER; a person who caught birds for selling

BIRDS NEST SELLER: a person who sold birds nest collected from the wild complete with eggs; these were then hatched by domestic birds and sold as pets

BLACKING MAKER: a person who made polish for shoes

BLACK BORDERER: a person who made black edged stationery for funerals

BLADESMITH: swordmaker or knife maker

BLEMMERE: a plumber

BLOCKCUTTER / BLOCKER: a person who made wooden blocks used in the hat trade; a person who laid down the blocks on which a ships keel was laid

BLOCK MAKER: a person who engraved the blocks used in the printing trade

BLOCK PRINTER: a printer who used wooden blocks for printing

BLOODLETTER / BLOODMAN: the person who used leeches for letting blood, thought to be a cure for many ailments

BLOOMER: a person who produced iron from ore

BLOWER: [1] a glass blower; [2] a person who operated a "blowing machine" used to clean and separate fibres in the textile trade; [3] a person who operated the bellows at a blacksmiths

BLUESTOCKING female writer

BLUFFER: a landlord

BOARDING OFFICER: one who inspected ships before entering port

BOARDWRIGHT: a carpenter

BOATMAN: a person who worked on a boat, predominately on rivers and canals; boat repairer

BOATSWAIN: an officer in charge of the sails and rigging

BOBBER: [1] a person who polished metals; [2] person who helped to unload fishing boats

BOCHER: [obsolete] butcher

BODEYS MAKER / BODY MAKER: a person who made bodices for womens garments

BODGER: a craftsman who made wooden chair legs and the spars

BOILERMAKER: one who worked with metal in any industrial setting

BOILER PLATER: a person who made rolled iron plate used to make boilers for steam engines

BOLTER: a person who sifted meal

BONDAGER: a female worker on a farm who was bonded

BONDMAN: a person bonded to a master for the purpose of learning a skill or trade

BONE BUTTON TURNER: a person who made buttons using a lathe

BONE LACE MAKER: one who made pillow lace

BONE PICKER: See Rag Picker

BONESETTER: a person who set broken bones

BONIFACE: an innkeeper

BOOK GUILDER: one who decorated books with gold leaf

BOONMASTER: a surveyor of roads with the responsibilities of maintaining and repairing the road

BOOT-CATCHER: the person at an inn whose business was to pull off boots

BOOTBINDER: one employed to operate the machines which bound footware

BOOT CLOSER: an employee who worked in the shoe trade stitching together all the parts of a shoe upper

BOOTHMAN: a corn merchant

BORLERA: a person who made cheap coarse clothing

BOTCHER: a cobbler; a tailor; an unskilled laborer

BOTTILER / BOTTLER: a person who made leather containers for holding liquids such as wine flasks or water bottles

BOTTLE BOY: a pharmacist's assistant

BOWLER: [1] a person who made bowls and dishes; [2] one who made the rounded part of spoons before casting

BOWLMAN: a dealer in crockery

BOWYER: [archaic] a person in the bow trader; an archer

BRABENER: a weaver

BRACHYGRAPHER: a person who wrote short hand

BRAKEMAN / BRAKESMAN: a person who operated the winch at the pit head; a person who operated the braking mechanism on trains and trams

BRASIATOR: a brewer of ale

BRASS FINISHER: one who polished brass goods

BRASS CUTTER: a person who made copperplate engravings

BRASS FOUNDER: one who cast brass

BRAYER: a person who ground things up in a mortar

BRAZIER: one who works in brass

BREACH MAKER: a person who made the breach for guns

BREWSTER: a female brewer

BRICKBURNER / BRICKMAKER: a person who used a kiln to make bricks

BRICKMAN / BREAKMAN: a bricklayer

BRIDEWELL KEEPER: the person in charge of a lock-up or jail

BRIDGEMAN: toll keeper at bridges

BRIGHTSMITH: tinsmith

BROADCLOTH WEAVER: a person who operated a wide loom

BROAD COOPER: a person employed as a go-between for the brewery and the innkeepers

BROGGER: a wool merchant

BROOM DASHER: a dealer in brooms

BROOM SQUIRE: one who made brooms from birch

BROWDERER / BROIDERER: an embroiderer

BROWNSMITH: a person who worked with copper or brass

BUCK WASHER: a laundress

BUCKLER / BUCKLESMITH: a person who made buckles

BUCKLE TONGUE MAKER: a person who made the metal points that go in the holes of a belt

BULLWHACKER: a bullock or oxen driver

BUMBOAT MAN: one who met ships at anchor, with goods for passengers and crew to purchase

BUNTER: a rag and bone woman

BURLER: one who dresses or readies cloth for sale by removing flaws, knots, or imperfections

BURMAIDEN: [also BOWERMAIDEN] - a chambermaid or lady in waiting

BURYEMAN: a grave digger

BUSHELER: a tailor's assistant

BUSKER: [obsolete] a hair dresser

BUSS MAKER: a maker of guns

BUTNER: button maker

BUTTON BURNISHER: one who polished buttons

CABBIE: driver of a small horse drawn passenger vehicle

CAD: a person employed to feed and water horses at coach stops

CADDY BUTCHER: horse meat butcher

CADGER: a beggar

CAINER: a person who made walking sticks

CALCINER: a person who burnt bones to make powdered lime

CALENDER: a person who listed documents

CALKER: an astrologer or magician

CAMBIST: a banker or one who dealt in notes and bills

CAMBRIC MAKER: a person who made a fine linen or cotton fabric called cambric

CAMERIST: a lady's maid

CANDLE MAKER / CANDLER: one who made and sold candles

CANDY MAN: [1] an itinerant candy salesman; [1] {England} a bailiff or process server

CANER: a person who made the seats for chairs out of woven cane

CANTER: a beggar or vagrant

CANTING CALLER: an auctioneer

CANVASER: a person who made canvas

CAPE MERCHANT: the head merchant in a factory

CAPER: a cap maker

CAPTAIN: [1] a person in charge of a ship or a group of soldiers; [2] an overseer

CARDER: one who carded wool

CARDMAKER: [1] A person who made the handheld implement used for carding wool and cotton; [2] the maker of playing cards

CARNIFEX: [obsolete] an executioner or butcher

CARTER: a wagoner, stable headman, or charioteer

CARTOGRAPHER: a map maker

CARTOMANCER: a fortune teller who used cards

CART WHEELER: one who made cart wheels

CARTWRIGHT: one who made carts or wagons

CASTER / CASTOR: maker of small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar, etc.

CASTRATOR: [also GELDER] one who castrated farm animals

CATTLE JOBBER: a person who bought and sold cattle

CAULKER: a person who made boats watertight by caulking the seams

CELLARMAN: one who looked after the beer, wines and spirits in public houses or the warehouse

CHAFFERER: a dealer in chaff

CHAISE MAKER: wicker cart maker

CHALONER: blanket maker

CHAMBERLAIN: a steward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household

CHAMBERMAID: a female servant who attended to the bedrooms in a house or inn

CHAMBERMASTER: a shoemaker who worked in his own home

CHANDLER: originally, one who made or sold candles; a retail dealer in provisions, groceries, etc.

CHANTY MAN: the sailor who led the singing on board ship

CHAPELER: a person who made and sold hats

CHAPMAN: an itinerant peddler or one who kept a booth in a marketplace

CHARCOAL BURNER: a person who made charcoal usually in the woods where the trees were cut

CHARWOMAN: a cleaning woman hired by the day

CHASER: engraver

CHEESEMAN / CHEESE MONGER: cheese dealer

CHRONOLOGIST: one who recorded official events of historical importance

CLICKER: a merchant's servant who would stand at the door and invite customers into the store; a foreman in a shoemaker's shop

CLOD-HOPPER: a ploughman or agriculture laborer

CLOGGER: one who made wooden shoes for sale

CLOTHIER / CLOTHESMAN: a person who made or sold clothes

CLOWER: a person who made nails

COACHMAN: a person who drove any coach

COAL HEAVER: one who unloaded coal from ships

COALMAN: a person who sold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house

COALY: a coal heaver

COBBLER: a shoemaker

COCKFEEDER: a person who looked after fighting cocks

CODMAN: a fish seller

COGMEN: men who bought and sold a coarse cloth called cogware

COILLOR: [obsolete] a collector

COISTSELL: a groom in charge of the care of a knight's horse

COLLAR MAKER: a person who made collars

COLLIER: a coal miner or coal merchant

COLPORTEUR: an itinerant book salesman, most often one employed by a society to travel about and sell or distribute Bibles and religious writings

CONEY CATCHER: a rabbit catcher

CONFECTIONERY: a maker of sweets; sometimes, one who made medicines or poisons

CONNOR: one who tested, examined, or inspected

COOPER: one who made or repaired wooden casks, kegs or tubs

COPEMAN - [1] a dishonest merchant, especially in horses; [2] a receiver of stolen goods

COPER: a horse dealer

COPPERSMITH: one who worked with copper

CORDER: a colonial official whose duty was to verify cords of wood before sale

CORDWAINER: a shoemaker or worker of leather

CORK CUTTER: one who worked with cork

CORN CUTTER: a podiatrist

COSTERMONGER: originally, a seller of apples; a fruiterer, especially in the open street

COTELER / COTYLER: one who made and repaired knives

COUPER: one who bartered, dealt, or bought and sold

COURANTEER: a journalist, reporter, or newspaper publisher

COURTIER: the owner and driver of a horse and cart known as a court

COWHERD: a cow keeper; one who tended cows

COWPER: one who made wooden items

CRACKER BOY - a boy employed to clean and sort slate and other impurities from the coal crushed by the crackers (machines that crush anthracite coal)

CRAFTIMAN: a craftsman

CRAMER: a peddlar who sold books in the marketplace; a hawker

CRATE MAN: a person who sold eathenware door to door

CRIMPET MAKER: a person who baked crumpets

CROCKER: one who made crockery; potter

CROFTER: a tenant who worked a small piece of ground, having another vocation, such as fishing

CROOKMAKER: a person who made shepherd's crooks and walking sticks

CROPPER: a tenant who worked a piece of ground and got a portion of the crop in payment

CROWNER: a coroner

CURER: one who cured tobacco

CURRIER: a craftsman who treated animal skins with oil or grease

CUTLER: one who made, dealt, and sharpened knives, scissors, and other cutting instruments

DAIRYMAN: a man who rented, owned, or managed a dairy and made his living by selling dairy products

DAMSTER: in logging operations, one who supervised the building of a dam

DAY LABORER: a man who worked on a hire-by-the-day basis

DECOYMAN: a person employed to decoy the wild fowl, animals, etc. into a trap or within shooting range

DELVER: ditch digger

DIKER: one who built dikes or dug ditches or trenches

DISHER / DISH THROWER: a person who made bowls and dishes

DISH TURNER: one who made wooden bowls or dishes

DOCK MASTER: a person in charge of a dockyard

DOG BREAKER: dog trainer

DOG LEECH: a veterinarian

DOMESMAN: a judge

DOOR-KEEPER: a janitor, porter, or guard

DOWSER: a person who claimed to be able to find water using a forked stick or dowsing stick

DRAINER: a person who made drains

DRAPER: originally, a maker of woolen cloth, later a dealer in cloths of all kinds

DRAWER: one who drew and served liquor for tavern customers

DRAYMAN: one who drove a cart carrying heavy loads, often used in connection with a brewery

DRESSER: [1] one who dressed another (a tirewoman); [2] surgeon's assistant in a hospital

DRESSMAKER: clothing maker

DRIVER: the overseer of a group of slaves

DROVER: a driver of sheep and cattle

DRYSALTER - one who dealt in salted or dried meats, pickles, sauces, chemical, and dyes

DUFFER: a peddler or hawker who sold cheap or trashy goods

DUSTMAN: a janitor or garbageman

DYER: one who dyed material

EARER: a ploughman

EGGLER: an egg or poultry dealer

ELYMAKER: oilmaker

EMBOSSER: a person who moulded or carved designs that were raised above the surface of the material

EMPRESARIO: a man who performed a specific deed, such a importing a certain number of settlers, in return for land grants and power; land broker, settlement scheme promoter, showman

EMPTOR: a buyer

ENGRAVER / ETCHER: one who cut or carved designs or lettering in metal or stone

ENUMERATOR: census taker

EREMITE: hermit

ESSENCE PEDDLER: one who sold medicines, flavorings, elixirs, etc.

EXCISEMAN: a government official who collected excises (taxes)

EYER: a person who made eyes in needles used for sewing; also called a Holer

FACTOR: a commissioned agent; one who sold goods for another in his own name and received a commission

FAGETTER: a person who made up faggots into bundles; seller of firewood

FANNER: one who winnowed (separated the chaff from the grain by means of air movement) grain with a fan

FARRIER: a blacksmith or horse-shoer

FASHIONER: one who fashioned or formed anything, especially clothing

FEATHER-BEATER: one who cleaned feathers

FEATHER-DRESSER: a person who cleaned and prepared feathers for sale

FEATHERMAN: a dealer in feathers and plumes

FELLER: a woodcutter

FELLMONGER: one who removed hair or wool from hides in preparation for leather making; a dealer in animal skins and hides, especially sheepskin

FELTER: a worker in the hatting industry

FENCE VIEWER: a person legally appointed to inspect and report on the condition of fences.

FERRER: a smith who worked in iron

FISH FAG: a woman who sold fish

FLAX DRESSER: one who prepared flax prior to spinning

FLESHER: [1] a butcher; [2] one who worked in a tannery

FLESHMONGER: one who dealt in flesh; a pimp

FLETCHER: a maker of and dealer in bows and arrows

FLOATER: a vagrant

FLUSHERMAN: a person who cleaned out water mains

FLYING STATIONER: a street broadsheet seller

FOGGER: [1] a peddlar who carried small wares from village to village; [2] a low-class lawyer; [3] a middleman in the nail and chain trade; [4] an agricultural laborer who fed cattle

FOOT-BOY: a servant or attendent in livery

FOOT-MAIDEN: a female attendant

FOOTMAN: a servant who would run errands among his other duties

FORGER: blacksmith

FORESTALLER: one who bought goods before they come to market with the intention of raising the price

FOSSETMAKER: a person who made faucets for ale-casks

FRAME SPINNER: a worker on a loom

FRINGEMAKER: one who made fringes or ornamental borders of cloth

FRIPPERER: one who bought and sold old clothes

FRISEUR: a hair dresser

FRUITERER: a person who bought and sold fruit

FRUITESTERE: a female fruit seller

FULKER: a pawnbroker or money lender

FULLER: a person who fulled cloth by increasing the weight and bulk of fabric by shrinking, beating, or pressing it

FURBISHER: a person who polished armor

FURNER: a baker; one in charge of the ovens

FURRIER: one who bought, sold, and/or made furs

FUSTIAN WEAVER: a maker of corduroy

GAFFER: a headman or foreman of a work gang

GANGREL: a vagrant or roving beggar

GANNEKER: an alehouse keeper

GAOLER: [obsolete] a jailer

GARCION: a servingman or groom, usually a young man or boy

GATER: a watchman

GATWARD: a goat keeper

GAUNTER: a glover

GELDER: castrator of animals, especially horses

GILDER: one whose occupation was to overlay an item with gold leaf

GINOUR: an engineer

GIRDLER: one who made girdles

GLAZIER: a glass cutter; a person who glazed pottery, paper, etc.

GOLDSMITH: a banker; one who dealt in articles made of gold; a craftsman who makes vessels and ornaments of gold

GOOSE HERD: one who herded geese

GOOSE HERDER: an itinerant tailor

GRACE WIFE: a midwife

GRAFFER: a notary or scrivener

GRAINER: one who produced artifical grain in wood

GRANGER: a farmer, bailiff, or steward of a farm

GRAVER: one who carved or engraved letters or figures in stone

GRAZIER: one who pastured and raised cattle for market

GREEN GROCER: a retailer of greens

GREENSMITH: worker in copper or latten

GRINDER: one who operated a grinding machine in any of several trades

GUMMER: a person who improved old saws by deepening the cuts

HABERDASHER: a person who sold men's furnishings such as hats, shirts, neckties, handkerchiefs, gloves, etc.

HACKNER: one who made or used hoes, mattocks, etc.

HACKNEY MAN: one who rented horses and carriages

HAIRWEAVER: weaver of cloth composed wholly or partly of horsehair

HAND WOMAN: a midwife; a female attendant

HARLOT: [1] loose woman; [2] vagabond, beggar, rogue; [3] male servant, attendant or menial

HARPER: a performer on the harp

HATCHELER: one who cleaned or dressed flax

HAWKER: an itinerant peddler or huckster

HAYMONGER: a dealer in hay

HAYWARD: an officer formerly charged with the repair of cattle fences and the retention of cattle in the town common.

HEDGER: one who planted or trimmed hedges

HEELMAKER: one who made shoe heels

HENCHMAN: a horseman or groom

HEWER: a miner who cut coal, stone; a face worker in a mine

HIGGER: a person who peddled merchandise

HIGHWAYMAN: a robber who worked the public roads

HIND a farm laborer, household or domestic servant

HOBBLER: [1] a soldier on horseback; [2] one who towed a boat with a rope along a river bank

HOD: a bricklayer's laborer

HODMAN: a mason's helper

HOGGARD: a pig drover

HOOPER: a cooper; one who put the hoops on casks or tubs

HORNER: a worker in horn making spoons, combs, or musical horns

HORSE-CAPPER: a dealer in worthless horses

HORSE COPER: a horse dealer or breeder

HORSE COURSER: a man who keeps race horses

HORSE LEECH: veterinarian

HOSIER: a retailer of stockings, socks, gloves, nightcaps, etc.

HOSTLER: [1] a stableman or groom; [2] one who serviced railroad engines

HOSTELER: one who received and lodged guests

HOUSE JOINER: one who built house frames

HOUSEWRIGHT: a carpenter or house builder

HOYMAN: a person who engaged in the carriage of goods and passengers by water

HUCKSTER: a peddler or salesman

ICEMAN: an ice dealer; one who delivered ice to customers

INFIRMARIAN: a person in charge of an infirmary

INNHOLDER: an innkeeper

INTELLIGENCER: a spy

INTENDANT: a director of a public or government business

INTERFACTOR: a murderer

IRONMASTER: the owner or manager of an iron foundry

IRONMONGER: a dealer in iron and hardware

IRON SMITH: blacksmith; worker in iron

IVORY WORKER: one who made such things as piano keys, combs, billard balls, and buttons

JACK: a young male assistant, sailor, or lumberjack

JACKSMITH: a maker of lifting machinery

JAGGER: a carrier, carter, peddler or hawker; in mining, a man who carried ore on a pack-horse from a mine to the smelter; a boy who had charge of the jags or train or trucks in a coal mine

JAKES-FARMER: one who emptied cesspools

JOBBER: [1] a person who bought in quantity and sold to individual dealers; [2] one who worked by the job or did piecework; [3] a person who worked in an official capacity and was dishonest, using the office for his own gain

JOBMASTER: Supplied carriages, horses and drivers for hire

JOINER / JOYNER: a carpenter who did interior finish work by joining pieces of wood

JONGLEUR: an itinerant minstrel

JOURNEYMAN: one who served an apprenticeship and was no longer bound to serve a master

JOUSTER: hawker or peddler of fish

KEDGER: a fisherman, or one who peddled fish

KEELMAN: a bargeman

KEMPSTER: a wool comber

KIDDIER: [1] skinner; [2] dealer in young goats

KNACKER: [1] one who made harnesses; [2] one who bought old horses and sells the flesh for dog meat, etc.; [3] one who bought and wrecked old houses and sells the various parts

KNELLER: a chimmney sweep who solicited customers by knocking on doors

KNOCKKNOBBLER: a person whose duty it was to chase dogs out of church if they became a nuisance

KNOLLER: bell toller

LACEMAN: a dealer in lace

LACEWOMAN: a lady's maid

LAGGER: a sailor

LANDS JOBBER: one who bought land on speculation and sold it to others

LANDSMAN: an inexperienced sailor

LAND WAITER: a customs official who examined, weighed, and took account of goods that had just been landed (off a ship)

LASTER: one who worked or shaped shoes on a last [the mold of the human foot made of wood and used to shape shoes]

LATTENER: a maker of or worker in latten, a mixed metal of yellow color, either identical with or closely resembling brass

LAUNDERER: a person who washed linen

LAVENDAR: a washerwoman

LEECH or SAWBONES: physician

LEGERDEMAINIST: magician

LEIGHTONWARD: a gardener

LIGHTERMAN: one who owns or is employed on a lighter, a large flat-bottomed barge used to unload and load ships where the water is too shallow for the ships to dock

LIMNER: one who illuminated books or parchments; one who paints or draws

LINENER: a linen draper; shirtmaker

LINKERMAN: a person who carried a link or torch to guide people through city streets at night for a small fee

LISTER: one who kept a list of persons being taxed and their property

LITSTER: a dyer; one who dyed fabrics

LOADSMAN / LODESMAN: a pilot of a ship or boat

LOBLOLLY BOY: a ship's doctor assistant

LOCK KEEPER: overseer of canal locks

LONGSHOREMAN: one who worked on the waterfront loading and unloading ships

LORESMAN: a teacher

LORIMER: a maker of bits and metal mounting for horse bridles, generally a maker of small ironware and a worker in wrought iron

LUNGS: a servant whose duty was to blow the fire of an alchemist

MADERER: one who gathered and sold garlic

MALEMAKER: a maker of 'Males' or travelling bags

MALENDER: a farmer

> MALSTER: one who made or dealt in malt

MANGLE KEEPER: a woman who offered use of the mangle to others for a fee

MANTUAMAKER: a dressmaker

MASON: a stonecutter; one who worked with stone or brick

MASTER: a skilled workman or one in business on his own

MASTER MARINER: the commander of a ship

MASTER OF THE ROLLS: an equity judge

MATCHET FORGER: knifemaker, or machete maker

MEADER: a mower

MEALMAN: dealer in meal or flour

MECHANIC: [1] Manual laborer; [2] Operator of a machine

MEDICINE PEDDLER: an itinerant salesman who dealt in herbs, elixers, pills, etc. which were bought in large batches and sold under his own label

MELDER: a corn miller

MENAGE-MAN: an itinerant vendor who sold goods to be paid for in installments

MERCATOR: a merchant

MERCER: a person who dealt in costly fabrics, especially silks

MERCHANT: an occupation that might mean anything involving the buying and selling of a variety of products

MESSENGER: [1] (Plymouth Colony) a constable; [2] (England) one who was appointed by a court to handle certain duties in a bankruptcy case

METALMAN: a worker in metals

METERER: a poet

MIDSHIPMAN: usually, a wealthy second or third son who could not inherit

MIDWIFE: a woman experienced in the birthing process who helped other women in the birth of a child

MILLER: one who owned or operated a flour mill

MILLERESS: miller's wife

MILLINER: [1] a seller of fancy wares and articles of apparel; [2] a maker of ladies hats and bonnets

MILLWRIGHT: one who planned and built mills or mill machinery

MINER: a worker in a mine, such as coal, iron, etc.

MINT MASTER: the person in charge of a mint

MIXER: bartender

MONEY-SCHRIVENER: a person who raised money for others

MOULDER: one who made molds for casting or one who molded clay into bricks

MUDLARK: sewer cleaner, riverbank scavenger

MUFFIN MAN: itinerant seller of muffins

MULESKINNER: a mule driver

MULETEER: one who drove a team of mules

MULTURER: a miller

MUSIKER: a musician

MUSTARDER: one who made and dealt in mustard

NAVIGATOR: a laborer digging canals and later, railways

NECESSARY WOMAN: servant responsible for emptying and cleaning chamber pots

NECKER: a worker responsible for the feeding of cardboard into the machine that makes boxes

NEDELLER: one who made needles

NETTER: a net maker

NIGHT SOILMAN: one employed to empty cesspits, ashpits and backyard toilets

NIGHT MAGISTRATE: a constable

NIGHTWALKER: a watchman or bellman

NIMGIMMER: doctor, surgeon, or apothecary

NOB-THATCHER: one who made wigs

OCCUPIER: a tradesman

OILMAN: a person who sold the oil for lamps

OLITOR: a kitchen gardener

ORDERLY: a non-commissioned officer or private in the miitary service assigned to look after the needs of superior officers or to carry orders or messages

ORDINARY KEEPER: innkeeper

ORFEVER: a goldsmith

OSTREGER: a keeper of goshawks

OSTLER: See Hostler

OUT-CRIER: an auctioneer

OWLER: a sheep or wool smuggler

PACKMAN: a peddler, or person who travelled around carrying goods for sale in a pack

PACKER: one who packed goods for preservation, such as pickles or herring

PAINTRESS: a woman employed in the pottery industry to hand-paint the finished articles

PALING MAN: one who dealt in eels; fishmonger

PAN SMITH: one who made pans; metalworker

PANTER: keeper of the pantry

PARKER: one who kept a park; a caretaker

PASSAGE KEEPER: a person who kept passages and alleys clean

PASTELER: a pastry maker

PASTOR: a shepherd or herdsman

PAVER: one who maintained pavements; a person who laid paving stones

PAVYLER: one who put up pavilions or tents

PAWNBROKER: one who loaned money with interest against items of value left for security

PEAGER: a toll-keeper

PEDAILE: a footman; a foot soldier

PEDDLER: a person who traveled from place to place selling small goods

PELTERER: a person who worked with animal skins

PERFUMER: a maker or seller of perfumes

PERCHEMEAR: one who made parchment

PERIWIG MAKER: a wigmaker

PESSONER: a fishmonger

PETERMAN: a fisherman

PETTIFOGGER: a small time lawyer retained by a small or mean business

PETTY CHAPMAN: an itinerant dealer in small goods, a peddler

PEW OPENER: a person hired to open the doors to private pews in church

PHARMAOPOEIST: a person who sold medicines; an apothecary

PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENT MAKER: a maker of scientific instruments

PICAROON: a pirate, or a pirate's ship; a thief, adventurer, or rogue

PIECE BROKER: one who sold material remnants

PIGMAKER: a person who made pig or cast iron; pottery worker

PIGMAN: [also MUGGER] a seller of crockery

PIKELET MAKER: baker who specialised in making small pancakes or crumpets

PIKEMAN: a miller's assistant

PIKER: tramp or vagrant

PILL BOX LIDDER: one responsible for making the lids of pill boxes in the pottery trade

PILLER: a robber

PILOT: one licensed to steer ships through difficult waters

PINDER: a person whose duty was to catch and confine stray animals

PINER: [1] a pioneer; [2] a laborer

PINNER: a pin maker

PINNER UP: [1] a dressmakers assistant; [2] person who sold broadsheets or ballads in the streets

PIPER: an innkeeper

PITMAN: a coal miner; one who worked in a pit

PLAIN WORKER: one who performed plain sewing or needlework as opposed to an embroiderer

PLAITER: one who made straw plaits used in making hats

PLANKER: one who planks or kneads the body of the hat during felting

PLOUGH JOGGER: a plowman

PLOWMAN: a farm worker; a husbandman

PLOWRIGHT: one who made or repaired plows

PLUMASSIER / PLUMER: a person who made or sold plumes, ornamental feathers

PLUMBUM MAN: a plumber; one who worked with lead pipes

POINTER: someone who sharpened needles or pins

POLEMAN: a surveyor's assistant

PONDERATOR: an inspector of weights and measures

PORTABLE SOUP MAKER: a person who converted soup into a dry form for transporting from place to place

PORTER: [1] a pallbearer; [2] a doorman

POSTILLION: one who worked on long distance coaches and whose duty it was to change the horses at stops

POST RIDER: one who carrierd mail over a post road

POTATO BADGER: a potato seller

POT BOY: person who worked in public houses washing and removing dirty pots and other menial jobs

POTTER: one who made or peddled pottery or earthenware vessels

POTTER CARRIER: a chemist or pharmacist

POUCH MAKER: a person who made pouches or purses

POULTER: one who dealt in poultry

POYNTER: lace maker

PRESTIDIGITATOR: a magician; a juggler; one who juggles words

PRICKER: witch hunter

PUBLICAN: [1] an inkeeper or tavern keeper; [2] a person who collected fees of any kind such as tithes, tolls, tributes, customs, etc.

PUGGER: usually a woman or child employed by brick manufacturers to produce clay paste by treading

PULLEYMAKER: one who made pulleys for hoists

PUMPMAKER: a person who made pumps

QUARRIER: a quarry worker

QUARRYMAN: quarry worker

QUILLER: a person who operated a machine that wound yarn onto spools

QUILTER: a person who quilted material

QUISTER: one who bleached things

RAG CUTTER: someone who cut up rags into small pieces to be used for making paper

RAG GATHERER: usually children, employed to clear the rags from the machinery in the mills

RAG MAN: a person who went from street to street collecting and selling old clothes and rags

RAG AND BONE MAN: one who went from street to street with a cart and collected any old rubbish

RAG PICKER: a person who sorted through the leftover rags to find reusable ones

RATONER: a rat catcher

REDSMITH: goldsmith

REVENUER: taxman who enforced tax laws on liquor

RIGGER: one who worked with the rigging of a ship

RIPPER: a person who brought fish inland to the market

RIVERMAN - unlicensed employee of a river boat, such as agent, barker, bartender, clerk, cook, deck hand, etc.; usually does not refer to the owner, master, mate, or pilot, however, it is not always the case

RODMAN: a surveryor's assistant who carried a leveling rod

ROPER: a rope or net maker

ROVER: an archer

RUGMAN: rug dealer

RUNNER: [1] a smuggler; [2] a messenger, collector, or agent

RUSTLER: a cattle thief

SADDLER: one who made saddles, harnesses, horse collars, bridles, etc.

SADDLE TREE MAKER: one who made the frames for saddles that the saddler used

SALOONIST: a saloon keeper; one who promoted the idea of having saloons for drinking

SALTER: a maker of and ealer in salt; a drysalter

SANDESMAN: a messenger, envoy, or ambassador

SAPPERS AND MINERS - soldiers who belonged to the engineer corps whose duty was to make trenches or saps

SARTOR: a tailor

SAWYER: one who cut timber into logs or boards

SAY WEAVER - a weaver of say, a cloth of fine texture resembling serge

SAYER: a poet

SCAVELMAN: one who kept the waterways and ditches clear

SCHOOLMASTER: teacher

SCHRIMPSCHONGER: one who carved bone, ivory, etc. into pieces of art

SCRIBE - an official clerk transcriber; one who copied manuscripts before printing was developed

SCRIMER: a fencing master

SCRIPTURE READER: A person employed by the local clergy to go from house to house reading parts of the bible to try and encourage people to attend church;also read scriptures during some services

SCRIVENER: a clerk or notary; formerly, a moneylender; a broker

SCULLERY MAID: a female servant who performed all the menial tasks

SCULLION: a male servant who performed all the menial tasks

SEALER: an inspector who was elected by the town to put his "seal" or stamp of approval on items he inspected, tested and certified

SEARCHER: one who was employed at a custom-house station to inspect incoming goods; a customs-man

SEEDSMAN: one who dealt in seeds; a sower

SEMI LORER: a person who made leather thongs

SEMPSTRESS: seamstress

SEWSTER: a seamstress

SHANTY-MAN: a lumberman

SHARECROPPER: a person who would farm ground owned by another, and divide the crops or the profits with the owner

SHEARER: one who removed the fleece from sheep

SHEARGRINDER: one who sharpened shears, scissors

SHEARMAN: one who sheared cloth, metal, etc.

SHEATH MAKER: a person who made scabbards for swords

SHEEPMAN: a person whose business was raising sheep; a sheepherder

SHEPSTER: a female pattern cutter; a dressmaker

SHINGLER: a roof tiler who used wooden tiles or shingles

SHOESMITH: a cobbler; one who shod horses

SHIP MASTER: the owner or commander of a ship

SHIPWRIGHT: a carpenter skilled in building and repairing ships

SHOE-FINDER: a person who sold shoemakers' tools and appliances

SHOE-WIPER: a servant whose duty it was to clean shoes

SHORESMAN: a person who made his living on the shore in the fishery business; a shore-gunner

SHRAGER: a person who trimmed and pruned trees

SILK THROWSTER: a person who wound, twisted, spun, or threw silk fibers in preparation for weaving

SILVER SMITH: a person who worked with silver

SKEPPER: a person who made and sold beehives

SKINKER: a tapster; one who drew ale

SKINNER: one who dealt in animal skins; a mule driver

SLATER: one who slated roofs

SLOP SELLER: a person who sold cheap, ready-made garments

SMELTER: [1] one who worked in a smelter melting down ores; [2] a fisherman who fished for smelts

SMITH: one who made or repaired metal items

SNOBBER: a shoemaker or cobbler

SNOW WARDEN: a person whose duty was to make sure the snow was evenly dispersed on the streets so the sleigh runners could move easily

SNUFFER MAKER: one who made the candle snuffer for putting out or "snuffing" candlelight

SOAPBOILER: a soap-maker

SOJOURNER CLOTHIER: a traveling clothes salesman

SOUTER: a shoemaker

SPALLIER: a tin works laborer

SPERVITER: a keeper of sparrow hawks

SPICER: a grover or one who dealt in spices

SPINNER: one who spins yarn

SPLITTER: one who operated a splitting machine or who split things by hand

SPOONER: a person who made spoons

< SPURRIER: a person who made spurs

STAMPMAN: a person who worked with an ore-crushing stamp mill

STAPLER: a dealer in various goods

STATIONARY TENDER: see STOKER

STATIONER: a bookseller; one who sold paper, quills, ink stands, pencils, and other writing items

STAY MAKER: a corset maker

STEERSMAN: the helmsman of a ship

STEP BOY: one employed to help passengers to enter or leave a coach

STEVEDORE: a workman employed either as overseer or laborer in loading and unloading the cargoes of merchant vessels

STEWARD: a person entrusted with the care and management of another's estate or household

STITCHER: one who sewed, decorated with stitching, etc.

STOCKINGER: one who knitted, wove, or dealt in stockings

STOKER: a person who tended a furnace; stokeed the fire in a furnace; shoveled coal to feed a furnace.

STONE CUTTER: one who cut and dressed stones

STONER: a person who cut stones

STONEMAN / STONEWARDEN: a surveyor of highways

STONE PICKER: one hired to remove the stones from the farmers' fields before planting

STONE WORKER: one who worked with stone such as masons or quarriers

STRAW JOINER: a person who thatched roofs

STREAKER: one who prepared the body for burial

STREET CLEANER: a street sweeper

STRINGER: a person who made the strings for bows

SUCKSMITH: a person who made ploughshares

SURVEYOR: one who determined the boundaries, area, or elevations of land or structures on the earth's surface by means of measuring angles and distances, using the techniques of geometry and trigonometry

SUTLER: a person who followed an army camp peddling provisions and supplies

SWAIN: [1] a herdsman; [2] a servant; a young man who was a knight's attendant

SWAMPER: [1] a laborer who cleared roads in a swamp or forest; [2] a person who did odd jobs in a saloon

SWEEP: chimneysweep

SWINEHERDER: a pig keeper

SWORD CUTLER: one who made and mounted swords

TABLER: one who boarded others or was a boarder himself; boarding house operator

TAILOR: one who made or repaired clothes

TALLOW CHANDLER: a person who made and sold tallow candles

TALLY-CLERK: a person who counted votes; one who kept track of cargo or merchandise

TALLYMAN: a person who sold goods on credit and was paid by installments

TANKARD BEARER: a person employed in the drawing and carrying water from public pumps and conduits

TANNER: one who tanned or converted hides into leather

TAPER WEAVER: a person who made candlewicks

TAPISER: one who made tapestry; an upholsterer

TAPSTER: a barmaid or bartender

TAPPER: a tavern-keeper

TAVERNER: an innkeeper

TAWER: one who made white leather

TEAMSTER: one who drove a team for hauling cargo

TENTER: one who looks after machinery in a factory, such as a loom tenter

THACKER: a thatcher

THATCHER: one who covered roofs with straw or reeds

THRESHER: a person who separated the grain from the husks and straw

THROWSTER: one who threw (wound or twisted) silk into thread

TICKNEY MAN: a person who sold earthenware from town to town

TIDE GAUGER: a person who monitored the tide

TIDE WAITER: a custom house officer

TIEMAKER: one who made wooden railway ties

TILER: a person who put tiles in place either on the roof or floor

TILLER: a farmer; a cultivator

TILLMAN: a farmer; a ploughman

TINKER: an itinerant repairman who mended pots and pans; a jack-of-all trades

TINNER: a worker in a tin mine; a tinsmith; one who made tinware

TINTER: an artist skilled in tinting

TILTMAKER: a person who made canvas awnings or canopies

TIMEKEEPER: a person responsible for making sure things happened on time such as workers arriving or departing, trains, coaches, etc.

TIMES IRONER: a servant responsible for ironing the daily newspaper

TINCTOR: a dyer

TINKER: a travelling repairer of pots and pans

TINSMITH: a person who worked with tin

TIPPER: person who put the metal tips on arrows

TIPPLER: a person who kept an ale house

TIREWOMAN: a woman who assisted in the dressing room, especially in the theater; a dressmaker; a costumier

TOBACCO SPINNER: cigar maker

TOLLER: a person who collected tolls

TOLLGATE KEEPER: one who worked at the toll gate to collect fees for use of the road

TONSOR: a barber

TOOL HELVER: a person who made tool handles

TOPMAN: a sailor who served in the top mast station; the man who stood at the topmost point when sawing lumber

TOPSMAN: the foreman or head cattle drover

TOWN CRIER: a person who made public announcments in the streets

TRADESMAN: a shopkeeper or skilled craftsman

TRAMPER: [1] a vagabond; a tramp; [2] a person who trampled or walked on clothing in the wash to clean them

TRAMPLER: an attorney

TRANQUETER: a person who made hoops

TRANTER / TRAUNTER: a peddler with a horse and cart

TREEN MAKER: a person who made domestic articles from wood

TREENAIL MAKER: one who made the long wooden pins used in shipbuilding

TRENCHERMAKER: a person who made wooden boards or platters for serving food from or cutting and slicing food on

TRENCHERMAN: a cook

TRUCHMAN: an interpreter

TRUGGER: a person who made long shallow baskets

TUBBER: a person who made tubs and barrels

TUBEDRAWER: a person who made tubes

TUNIST: one who tuned musical instruments

TURNER: a person who worked with a lathe

TURNKEY: a prison warden or jail keeper

UPHOLDER: upholsterer and also a seller of secondhand goods

UPHOLSTERER: one who finished furniture by putting on the padding and cloth

UPRIGHT WORKER: a chimney sweep

VALET: a male servant who attended a nobleman or gentleman

VATMAN: [1] a person employed in the paper making industry to put the paper pulp into the moulds; [2] a person who worked with vats in beer and wine making

VERGE MAKER: a person who made the spindles used in clocks and watches

VERRIER: a glazier

VERSER: a versifier; a poet

VICTUALLER: a grocer

VINTAGER: grape farmer, wine maker

VINTNER: a wine merchant

VIRGINAL PLAYER: one who played a musical instrument similar to a harpsichord

VULCAN: blacksmith

WAFERER: one who made and sold wafers or thin unleavened cakes

WAGONER: a driver of a wagon; a carter

WAINWRIGHT: one who built or repaired wagons

WAITMAN / WAKEMAN: night watchman

WALKER: a cloth-worker

WALLER: [1] a person who built walls either brick or dry stone; [2] one who worked making coarse salt

WANTCATCHER: a person employed to catch moles

WARDER / WARDEN: a person in charge of prisoners

WARPER: [1] one who set the warp thread on the looms; [2] one employed to move boats by hauling on the warps (the ropes attached to the boats)

WARRENER: a person in charge of a portion of land used for breeding rabbits and other small game

WASHMAN: a person who applied the wash (or coating) of tin when making tinplate

WATCH FINISHER: a person employed to assemble watches and clocks

WATCHMAN: one whose job it was to guard the streets at night

WATER BAILIFF: an official in charge of the fishing rights on a stretch of water; a river policeman or in coastal towns a customs official

WATER CARRIER: a person who carted and sold fresh water

WATER GILDER: a person who trapped water fowl

WATER LEADER: a person who carts water for sale

WATERMAN: person who worked with or on boats usually on rivers

WATTLE HURDLE MAKER: a person who made a type of fence from wattle to keep the sheep, i.e. construction of poles intertwined with twigs, reeds, or branches

WAY-MAKER: a person employed to make roads

WAY MAN: surveyor of roads

WEATHERSPY: an astrologer

WEBBER: a weaver

WEEDER: a person employed to remove the weeds from the gardens of the rich

WEIGHER: a person employed on the docks to weigh the cargo as it was unloaded

WELLMASTER: one in charge of the local well with the responsibility of ensuring clean water for the village

WELL SINKER: a person who dug wells

WELLWRIGHT: a person who made the winding equipment used to raise the bucket in a well

WET GLOVER: a person who made leather gloves

WET NURSE: a woman employed to suckle the child of another

WETTER: [1] a person employed to dampen paper during the printing process; [2] a person in the glass industry who detached the glass by wetting

WHACKER: one who drove a team of oxen, horses, etc.

WHARFINGER: the person who owned or managed a wharf

WHEELER: [1] a wheel maker; [2] a person in the textile industry who attended to the spinning wheel; [3] a person who led the pit ponies that pulled the tubs underground in the mines

WHEELWRIGHT: a person who repaired and made wheels and wheeled vehichles

WHEERYMAN: a person in charge of a wheery (a small, light rowing boat)

WHIPCORD MAKER: a person who made whips

WHIPPERIN: one who handled the hounds in a hunt

WHITEAR: a cleanser of hides

WHIT COOPER: one who made barrels from tin

WHITE LIMER: a person who plastered walls using lime and water plaster

WHITENING ROLL MAKER: a person who made the whitening used in whitening walls of cottages

WHITENER: a person who bleached cloth

WHITE SMITH: a maker of utensils in tin, especially dairy utensils

WHITE TAWER / WHITTAWER: a saddler, harness-maker

WHITEWING: a street sweeper

WILLOW PLAITER: one who made baskets

WINDER: in the textile industry, a person who transferred the yarn from bobbins onto cheeses or into balls ready for weaving; in the mines a person who operated the pulley or winch

WINDSTER: a silk winder

WIRE DRAWER: one who made wire from metal by drawing the metal through various size holes in a template

WOODBREAKER: one who made wooden water casks

WOODRANGER / WOOD REEVE: a person in charge of the forest or woods

WOOLCOMBER: one who operated the machines that separate the fibers ready for spinning

WOOL DRIVER: one who brought the wool to market

WOOL GROWER: sheep farmer

WOOL SORTER: a person who sorted the wool into different grades

WOOLSTED MAN: a seller of woollen cloth

WOOL WINDER: one who made up balls of wool for selling

WORSTED MANUFACTURER: a person who made worsted

WRIGHT: a skilled worker in various trades, i.e., shipwright, wheelwright, cartwright, etc.

YARDMAN: rail road yard worker

YATMAN: a gate keeper

YEARMAN: a person contracted to work for a year

YEOMAN: farmer who owns his own land